The split between the eastern and Roman parts of Christendom came in July 1054, when the pope excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople for heresy, and, in turn, the patriarch excommunicated the pope and his legates. After these mutual excommunications each church was to go its separate way, the Eastern church holding sway over Greece, the Balkans, Russia, Palestine, Egypt, and Syria, while the Roman Church remained supreme in western Europe. In the east the several different churches used the rituals and services of the Greek church even though the local churches outside
Just like Christianity Islam can locate its birth at a specific place and date. Islam was bom in Saudi Arabia, in a town called Mecca, in 623. Muhammad (“the Highly Praised One”), Islam’s prophet, was bom in Mecca in 571. His father died before Muhammad’s birth and his mother died when he was six years old so he was reared by a good, intelligent uncle. Legends about Muhammad’s birth say that his mother was told by angels that her son would become a prophet and a ruler. It is said that
The Sikhs, another Hindu sect, live primarily in northern India, in the Punjab province. Here some 60 percent of all Sikhs in the world live, or a total of 15 million believers. About a quarter million live in the United States. Sandra Widener has told of the life in a Sikh ashram or colony in New Mexico, ndar Es - panola and Santa Fe.' This ashram was started about 1970. A visit to this ashram could give a better understanding of the Sikh religion than reading any book about it. The Sikhs are disciples of ten gurus who lived from the fifteenth to the eighteenth
A Western traveler to the Orient might receive a superficial introduction to Buddhism when visiting some of the Buddhist temples in Thailand, Burma, Indonesia, China, and Japan. In these temple areas will be found statues of Buddha, statues where Buddha is seated, standing, lying down, and always with a benevolent, kindly smile on the face. Bangkok is a photographer’s delight, for here one sees a multitude of temples and statues, adorned in gold, blue, and most of the colors of the rainbow. Guarding the temple doors are grotesque figures of fierce-looking demons,
As early as the sixth century B. C. Greek gods and culture had begun to enter the Italian peninsula. First the Etruscans in northern Italy had made trade connections with the Greek cities and found that the Greek gods would be useful companions to their native spirits and gods. By the fourth century B. C. the Romans were trading with the Greeks and so they began to adopt the Greek gods and other aspects of Greek culture. By the second century B. C. Rome had become a powerful, expanding military state. By the time of Christ it had become a world empire,
Of all of the major religions existing today, Hinduism is the oldest. No record contains a date for the beginning of the religion that became India’s way of life. Primitive elements of Hinduism date back to two thousand years before Christ, when northern Aryans from Persia invaded India and conquered the native people, who spoke a Dravidian language. These people worshiped, as most other cosmic - religion people did, by honoring the spirits of nature, especially Mother Earth.